American National Standards Institute
Electric vehicles (“EVs,” a/k/a electric drive vehicles) offer the potential to significantly reduce the United States’ (U.S.) use of imported oil, create a multitude of well paying jobs through the establishment of a broad, domestic EV industry, and reduce on-road vehicular emissions. In order to achieve this potential, and broadly penetrate the consumer market, EVs must be undeniably safe, becomemore cost competitive, and otherwise satisfy user expectations and needs.
While there are many types of EVs, including those powered by fuel cells and other technologies, this roadmap’s primary focusis on light duty, on road plugin electric vehicles(PEVs)that are recharged via a connection to the electrical grid, as well as the supporting charging infrastructure needed to power them. PEVsinclude full battery electric vehicles(BEVs) and plugin hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs).
Some Plug-in models are also extended range electric vehicles(EREVs) that function as a full BEV, plus have a feature to extend vehicle range beyond the battery (e.g., via a gasoline generator and other possibilities). Conventional hybrid EVs(HEVs) which are recharged by an internal combustion engine are yet another type of EV and, while not the focus of this roadmap, are noted where there are relevant safety and other considerations.
Given the current range limitations of plug-in EVs on battery power alone, a critical need is the establishment of a supporting charging infrastructure to enable vehicle recharging at home, at work, and in public locations. Thisinfrastructure must be reliable and broadly interoperable regardless of the type of EV or charging systemutilized.
Equally important is the establishment of a comprehensive and robust support services sector that includes training of emergency first responders, vehicle technicians, electrical installers and inspectors, as well as education of authorities having jurisdiction, building owners, and consumers.
Standards, code provisions, and regulations, as well as conformance and training programs, cross over all these areas and are a critical enabler of the large-scale introduction of EVs and the permanent establishment of a broad, domestic EV and infrastructure industry and supportservices environment.