Estrazione mineraria - Classificazione degli incidenti causati da mine
Ottobre 2017 - Nuovo standard internazionale per ridurre gli incidenti di estrazione mineraria
La norma ISO 19434: 2017 stabilisce una classificazione degli incidenti causati da mine per origine o cause, per tipo di incidente e per i loro risultati o conseguenze. Quest'ultimo comprende solo gli incidenti che hanno conseguenze per le persone, non per apparecchiature o macchinari.
Alcune categorie di cause, tipi e conseguenze degli incidenti sono brevemente definiti e viene assegnato un codice a tre cifre a ciascuna categoria.
Questi possono essere combinati per assegnare in ultima analisi un codice unico a 15 cifre a ciascun tipo di incidente. Questo codice può essere utilizzato per l'analisi statistica. Allo stesso modo, un codice allocato mostra chiaramente a quali categorie di cause, tipo di incidente e conseguenze dell'incidente di mine.
ISO 19434: 2017 è applicabile a tutte le miniere di superficie e sotterranee.
NOTA: Gli incidenti possono essere classificati in termini di altri elementi di quelli indicati in ISO 19434: 2017, in particolare nelle ricerche e in altri schemi di classificazione. Queste possono essere, ad esempio classificazioni basate sul livello dei danni finanziari; il sesso, l'età, le competenze professionali, i termini di servizio e il grado accademico del personale; giorni di settimana, mese, anno, ora d'incidente; l'area del sito, ecc. Mentre queste classificazioni possono essere utili per consentire determinate decisioni da adottare dai dirigenti di salute e sicurezza, non sono considerati nella norma ISO 19434: 2017.
Quando un incidente si verifica in una miniera, può essere difficile capire esattamente cosa sia successo. Poiché molti fattori sono in gioco, si può verificare una vasta gamma di incidenti. Un passo fondamentale per prevenire questi incidenti è classificarli per tipo e causa, ed è questo il compito di ISO 19434.
Sviluppato dal comitato tecnico ISO sull'estrazione mineraria (ISO / TC 82), lo standard rappresenta una nuova direzione per il loro lavoro, in quanto, fino ad ora le norme ISO minerarie riguardavano soprattutto le caratteristiche di sicurezza delle macchine, mentre ISO 19434, esamina gli incidenti stessi, fornendo ad ogni incidente un codice che indica le sue cause e conseguenze.
Con la pubblicazione della norma ISO 19434, è stata affrontata una necessità di lunga data per un sistema di classificazione degli incidenti di miniera che potrebbe presentare uno schema standard per tutti i fattori associati agli incidenti. Ciò consentirà un'analisi completa basata sia sui sistemi software che sulla valutazione manuale.
ISO 19434: 2017 Mining - Classification of mine accidents
The primary purpose of this document on classification of mine accidents is to promote uniformity and comparability of mine accidents statistics, which has as an ultimate goal to prevent accidents.
Although mine accidents are very complex realizations and many factors can contribute to their occurrence, much thought has been given to the study of causes and consequences of the accidents and many investigations have been carried out on the subject.
An accident, mishap or misadventure is an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention or necessity. It usually implies a generally negative outcome which might have been avoided or prevented.
A mine accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining. Thousands of miners die from mine accidents every year. And although safer modern mining methods have been introduced, mine accidents are still the cause of casualties and financial losses.
Mine accidents can have a variety of causes, including leaks of poisonous gases such as hydrogen sulphide or explosive natural gases, especially firedamp or methane, dust explosions, collapsing of mine stopes, toxic gases arising from mine fires, mining-induced seismicity, flooding, or general mechanical errors from improperly used or malfunctioning mining equipment. Mine accidents mainly occur in the coal mining and underground mines sector. Initially, this document had a focus on coal and underground mines risks, but it has been extended to cover all mining environments.
While available accident reports are very detailed, this International Standard provides a tool to look at a broader picture. The advantage of the classification given in this International Standard is that statistical methods can be used to gain more insight into mine accident causation and probable results. By analysing a multitude of mine accidents and applying this standardized classification scheme, the users of this International Standard will be able to both detect patterns for the development of mine accidents and to derive correlations.
This document establishes a classification of mine accidents by their origin or causes, by the type of accident, and by their results or consequences. The latter includes only the accidents resulting into consequences on people, not equipment or machinery.
Different categories of causes, types and consequences of mine accidents are briefly defined, and a 3-digit code is assigned to each category. These can be combined to ultimately allocate a unique 15-digit code to each type of mine accident. This code can then be used in statistical analysis. Similarly, an allocated code clearly shows to which categories of causes, type of accident and resulting consequences the mine accident belongs to.
This document is applicable to all surface and underground mines.
NOTE Accidents can be classified in terms of other items than those given in this document, especially in researches and in other classification schemes. These can be, e.g. classifications based on the level of financial damages; gender, age, professional skills, terms of service and academic degree of the personnel; days of week, month, year, hour of accident; area of site, etc. While these classifications can be useful to enable certain decisions to be taken by the health and safety executives, they are not considered in this document
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
unplanned event that can result in injury or ill health of people, and/or damage to or loss of property, plants, materials, machinery, processes or the environment, and business opportunity
factor or factors that act together to produce an accident
airborne shock wave or acoustic transient generated by an explosion
filling in again of a place from which the rock or ore has been removed
obstruction of the ore passes by ore material or rock that refuses to pass
fire-resistant fabric or plastic partition used in a mine passage to confine the air and force it into the working place
explosion where the shock waves are supersonic
Note 1 to entry: Detonation involves a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
Note 2 to entry: Detonations are observed in both conventional solid and liquid explosives, as well as in reactive gases. The velocity of detonations in solid and liquid explosives is higher than that in gaseous ones, which allows the wave system to be measured with greater detail.
fine particles of a solid that can remain suspended in air with a particle size larger than that of a fume
Note 1 to entry: Dusts are produced by mechanical action, such as grinding.
Note 2 to entry: Some dusts can be harmful to an employee’s health.
fast combustion of dust particles suspended in the air in an enclosed location
Note 1 to entry: Coal dust explosions are a frequent hazard in underground coal mines, but dust explosions can occur where any powdered combustible material is present in an enclosed atmosphere or, in general, in high enough concentrations of dispersed combustible particles in atmosphere or other suitable gaseous medium such as molecular oxygen.
chemical which detonates after introduction of a stimulus appropriate initiation, so that the reaction front moves through the explosive at a higher speed than the sonic velocity of the material
Note 1 to entry: Upon detonation, an explosive releases large volumes of gaseous products and energy on the surrounding rock, which causes fragmentation, shattering, or shearing.
Note 2 to entry: The ingredients of an explosive, which are combinations of fuels and oxidizers, are converted to high pressure, high temperature gases upon detonation.
exposed area of a working place from which a mineral, rock, ore or coal is being extracted
<of rocks> rock instability occurring when applied force exceeds maximum rock strength
<of objective> state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective
fugitive rock fragments propelled from the blast area by the force of an explosion
damage to a biological organism caused by physical harm
unwanted sound that can lead to hearing loss or stress, or to interfere with the ability to hear other sound or to communicate
violent evolution of combustible gases (usually together with large quantities of coal dust) from a working face
Note 1 to entry: The occurrence is violent and can overwhelm the workings and fill the entire district with gaseous mixtures.
Note 2 to entry: Roadways advancing into virgin and stressed areas of coal are particularly prone to outbursts in certain seams and faults often intersect in the area.
sudden and often violent breaking of a mass of rock from the walls of a tunnel, mine, or deep quarry, caused by failure of highly stressed rock and the rapid or instantaneous release of accumulated strain energy
mine cave-in, especially in permanent areas such as entries
violent formation of slabs which separate from a strained surface
Note 1 to entry: If the force is sufficient for the slab to be ejected from the surface this would constitute one form of strainburst.
debris of a vein thrown back from a continuous miner machine and which supports the roof or hanging wall of the excavation